Potrait of Friedrich Nietzsche By Edvard Munch, 1906


Lifetime: 1844 - 1900 Passed: ≈ 123 years ago


Western Philosopher



Friedrich Nietzsche

Nietzsche's writing spans philosophical polemics, poetry, cultural criticism, and fiction while displaying a fondness for aphorism and irony. Prominent elements of his philosophy include his radical critique of truth in favor of perspectivism; a genealogical critique of religion and Christian morality and related theory of master–slave morality; the aesthetic affirmation of existence in response to the "death of God" and the profound crisis of nihilism; the notion of Apollonian and Dionysian forces; and a characterization of the human subject as the expression of competing wills, collectively understood as the will to power.

After his death, his sister Elisabeth became the curator and editor of Nietzsche's manuscripts. She edited his unpublished writings to fit her German ultranationalist ideology while often contradicting or obfuscating Nietzsche's stated opinions, which were explicitly opposed to antisemitism and nationalism.

The statement "God is dead," occurring in several of Nietzsche's works has become one of his best-known remarks. On the basis of it, many commentators] regard Nietzsche as an atheist; others (such as Kaufmann) suggest that this statement reflects a more subtle understanding of divinity.

A basic element in Nietzsche's philosophical outlook is the "will to power" (der Wille zur Macht), which he maintained provides a basis for understanding human behavior—more so than competing explanations, such as the ones based on pressure for adaptation or survival.

Books by Friedrich Nietzsche

Beyond Good And Evil Cover image

Beyond Good And Evil

Philosophy Non-Fiction
Morality Metaphysics Nature of Knowledge Truth Free Will

First published in 1886 at Nietzsche’s own expense, the book was not initially considered important. In it, Nietzsche denounced what he considered to be the moral vacuity of 19th century thinkers. He attacked philosophers for what he considered to be...

The Antichrist Cover image

The Antichrist

Philosophy Religion Reference work
Evil Gods Comparison Anarchism Messiah Dajjal

Save for his raucous, rhapsodical autobiography, Ecce Homo, The Antichrist is the last thing that Nietzsche ever wrote, and so it may be accepted as a statement of some of his most salient ideas in their final form. Of all Nietzsche’s books, The Anti...

The Twilight of the Idols or How to Philosophise with the Hammer Cover image

The Twilight of the Idols or How to Philosophise with the Hammer

Philosophy Non-Fiction
Social criticism Reason Cultural Decadence

Twilight of the Idols, or, How to Philosophize with a Hammer is a book by Friedrich Nietzsche, written in 1888, and published in 1889. Twilight of the Idols was written in just over a week, between 26 August and 3 September 1888, while Nietzsche wa...

Thus Spake Zarathustra: A Book for All and None Cover image

Thus Spake Zarathustra: A Book for All and None

Fiction Philosophy Novel
Christianity Eternal Recurrence Will to Power

Thus Spoke Zarathustra: A Book for All and None is a philosophical novel by German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, composed in four parts written and published between 1883 and 1885. Much of the work deals with ideas such as the "eternal recurrence...

The Joyful Wisdom, or The Gay Science Cover image

The Joyful Wisdom, or The Gay Science

Philosophy Non-Fiction

The Gay Science sometimes translated as The Joyful Wisdom or The Joyous Science, is a book by Friedrich Nietzsche published in 1882, and followed by a second edition in 1887 after the completion of Thus Spoke Zarathustra and Beyond Good and Evil. Thi...

The Birth of Tragedy Cover image

The Birth of Tragedy

Philosophy Non-Fiction
Social Science Fine Arts Illusions

The Birth of Tragedy from the Spirit of is an 1872 work of dramatic theory by the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. It was reissued in 1886 as The Birth of Tragedy, Or: Hellenism and Pessimism. The later edition contained a prefatory essay, "An...

Ecce Homo Cover image

Ecce Homo

Non-Fiction Biography
Autobiography Modern Prose

Ecce Homo: How One Becomes What One Is is the last original book written by philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche before his death in 1900. It was written in 1888 and was not published until 1908.

Human, All Too Human: A Book for Free Spirits Cover image

Human, All Too Human: A Book for Free Spirits

Philosophy Non-Fiction
Free Spirited Human Traits

Human, All Too Human: A Book for Free Spirits is a book by 19th-century philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, originally published in 1878. A second part, Assorted Opinions and Maxims (Vermischte Meinungen und Sprüche), was published in 1879, and a third...

The Genealogy of Morals Cover image

The Genealogy of Morals

Philosophy Non-Fiction
Morality Religious tradition Christianity Religious Freedom Ethics Jewish

On the Genealogy of Morality: A Polemic is an 1887 book by German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. It consists of a preface and three interrelated treatises ('Abhandlungen' in German) that expand and follow through on concepts Nietzsche sketched out...

Early Greek Philosophy and Other Essays  Cover image

Early Greek Philosophy and Other Essays

Philosophy Essays
Slavery Morality Truth Social Science Culture Philosophical Anthropology

The essays contained in this volume treat of various subjects. With the exception of perhaps one we must consider all these papers as fragments. Written during the early Seventies, and intended mostly as prefaces, they are extremely interesting, sinc...

The Case of Wagner  Cover image

The Case of Wagner

Nature Autobiography Culture Art Society Philosophical Music

The book is a critique of Richard Wagner and the announcement of Nietzsche's rupture with the German artist, who had involved himself too much, in Nietzsche's eyes, in the Völkisch movement and antisemitism. His music is no longer represented as a po...

On the Future of Our Educational Institutions  Cover image

On the Future of Our Educational Institutions

Future Education Lectures Germany

Nietzsche gives a series of lectures in Bale, Germany on the subject of German educational institutions, and what the best way forward.

Tolle Mensch Cover image

Tolle Mensch

“Der tolle Mensch” ist der Aphorismus 125 aus dem dritten Buch der “Fröhlichen Wissenschaft” und befaßt sich mit dem Thema “Gott ist tot”. Der stilistisch dichte Aphorismus enthält Anspielungen an klassische Werke der Philosophie und Tragödie. Dieser...

Götzendämmerung Cover image


Diese kleine Schrift ist eine grosse Kriegserklärung; und was das Aushorchen von Götzen anbetrifft, so sind es dies Mal keine Zeitgötzen, sondern ewige Götzen, an die hier mit dem Hammer wie mit einer Stimmgabel gerührt wird, - es giebt überhaupt kei...

Twilight of the Idols Cover image

Twilight of the Idols

Of The Twilight of the Idols, Nietzsche says in Ecce Homo: “If anyone should desire to obtain a rapid sketch of how everything before my time was standing on its head, he should begin reading me in this book. That which is called ‘Idols’ on the title...

Case of Wagner / Nietzsche Contra Wagner / Selected Aphorisms Cover image

Case of Wagner / Nietzsche Contra Wagner / Selected Aphorisms

A collection of three of Nietzsche's writings concerning the music of Wagner. In particular, he relates Wagner's music as degenerate, unrefined and unintelligent and relates it to a gradually degenerating German culture and society. The translator pr...

Antichrist Cover image


Der Philosoph Friedrich Nietzsche ist nicht unumstritten, wurde von den Nazis mißverstanden und für ihre Ideologie mißbraucht. Das Werk entstand 12 Jahre vor seinem Tod, und nur wenige Jahre vor seinem geistigen Zusammenbruch. Darin rechnet er mit de...

悦ばしき知識 (Yorokobashiki Chishiki) Cover image

悦ばしき知識 (Yorokobashiki Chishiki)

此書物の書かれている間に(一八八一年八月に)、ニイチエ の目に『ツァラトゥストラの最初の電光が、久遠四帰の思想が閃き見えた。』とあるごとく、『悦ばしき知識』は内容も形式も、彼の最も円熟した時期への最終の段階であり、最善の序曲である。或いは、最も彼らしき...

Human, All Too Human: A Book For Free Spirits, Part I Cover image

Human, All Too Human: A Book For Free Spirits, Part I

"Human, all-too-Human, is the monument of a crisis. It is entitled: 'A book for free spirits,' and almost every line in it represents a victory—in its pages I freed myself from everything foreign to my real nature. Idealism is foreign to me: the titl...

Beyond Good and Evil: Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future Cover image

Beyond Good and Evil: Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future

By turns illuminating, infuriating, bewildering, and amusing, Nietzsche's masterwork covers a lot of ground. He rejects most strands of Western thought, especially on the subject of morality, and develops his own theme demanding that individuals emb...

viajero y su sombra (Primera parte) Cover image

viajero y su sombra (Primera parte)

Primer volumen de recopilación de 408 opiniones y sentencias del célebre filósofo alemán en el que expone las principales caraterísticas de su pensamiento sobre las artes, la filosofía, la historia, la ciencia, la religión, la sociedad... Este texto...

Mother Earth, Vol. 1 No. 4, June 1906 Cover image

Mother Earth, Vol. 1 No. 4, June 1906

"Mother Earth was an American anarchist journal that described itself as "A Monthly Magazine Devoted to Social Science and Literature". Founded in early 1906 and initially edited by Emma Goldman, an activist in the United States, it published article...

Complete Works of Friedrich Nietzsche: Volume 3 Cover image

Complete Works of Friedrich Nietzsche: Volume 3

Volume 3 of the complete works contains several short critical introductory essays, five lectures under the heading "On the Future of our Educational Institutions," and finally an essay by the author entitled "Homer and Classical Philology." As alway...

Birth of Tragedy; or, Hellenism and Pessimism Cover image

Birth of Tragedy; or, Hellenism and Pessimism

This is one of Nietzsche's early academic writings - a scholarly theory about Ancient Greek theatre, specifically tragedies. In a nutshell, this work theorizes about why (Greek) spectators enjoy watching actors in a long series of scenes that depict...

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